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: Do not add s to pluralize units of measurement (12 m not 12 ms).Citations should be as condensed as possible, so you should know the basic rules of abbreviation endorsed by the APA to provide your readers with reference information.See more about this in our post on cite what you see.
Always abbreviate the first and middle names of authors, editors, etc.
seems straightforward, as it happens, there's more than one preferred way to write it.
When the spelled-out version first appears in the narrative of the sentence, put the abbreviation in parentheses after it: If your reference has a group author, the name of the group can sometimes be abbreviated—for example, American Psychological Association can be abbreviated to APA.
You are not obligated to abbreviate the name of a group author, but you can if the abbreviation would help avoid cumbersome repetition and will appear more than three times in the paper.
There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using APA, though there are always exceptions to these rules.
When abbreviating a term, use the full term the first time you use it, followed immediately by the abbreviation in parentheses.Typing a long organization or person name takes a lot of time and often causes typing errors and inconsistencies.To resolve this issue you can introduce abbreviations and expand them through Auto Correct feature. When you don’t make the word unique, Word inserts the Auto Correct entry whenever you type that word, whether you want it to or not. If you're using Chicago style and have legal-context citations in your bibliography, reference list, footnotes, or endnotes, you'll use periods, such as in Supreme Court decisions, statute numbering, and the like. designation, such as here, in this example note from Chicago: "Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U. "Because American and British styles differ," notes Amy Einsohn, "' CBE' ["Scientific Style and Format: The CE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers"] recommends eliminating periods in most abbreviations as the most efficient way to create an international style" ("The Copyeditor's Handbook," 2007).For example, when a law is incorporated into the United States Code, it has a U. (And obviously, if you're writing something formal, you'll want to follow the style guide to which you're assigned to adhere.) for the piece you're writing and then stick with it, or follow the guidance that your instructor, publisher, or client prefers.As long as you're consistent in usage, neither way will look like an error. § 101 (2012)." In the case of Supreme Court decisions, they're attributed to the "' United States Reports' (no periods, no space) in all cases: "Do not use full points in abbreviations, or spaces between initials, including those in proper names: US, mph, eg, 4am, Ibw, M&S, No 10, AN Wilson, WH Smith, etc." ("Guardian Style," 2010).There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using MLA, though there are always exceptions to these rules.For a complete list of common abbreviations used in academic writing, see Section 1.6 in the Condense citations as much as possible using abbreviations.Time Designations Remember to follow common trends in abbreviating time and location within citations.Month names longer than four letters used in journal and magazine citations should be abbreviated: Scholarly Abbreviations The MLA Handbook (8th ed.) encourages users to adhere to the common scholarly abbreviations for both in-text citations and in the works-cited page.