Some of the most well-known women revolutionaries of the 19th century include Vera Zasulich, Maria Spiridonova, Vera Figner and Ekaterina Breshko-Breshkovskaia (Catherine Breshkovsky).
The rise of Social Democracy in Russia in the 1880s attracted both women workers and women from the intelligentsia.
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION IN RUSSIAN POLITICAL LIFE : THE CASE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN HISTORY AND POLITICS DMITRY SHLAPENTOKH The influence of politics on history is well known.
Yet the opposite relationship also holds : history and the images of the past often affect the behaviour of poli- ticians.
The essay will be divided into four main sections, corresponding to changes in Russia's political development and the role which the French Révolution played in the country's intellectual and political life.
The first section will cover the period from the end of the nineteenth century to the révolution of 1905.Katie Mc Elvanney explores how women’s lives changed during the Russian Revolution, tracing the history of female revolutionaries in Russia and the different ways women documented and participated in events.The life experiences of women in the Russian Empire before the Revolution were extremely diverse.This is well illustrated by the impact of the French Révolution upon Russian political and intellectual history.The French Révolution took on great significance among thinkers living in a country which seemed, at first, puzzlingly immune to the révolution which spread throughout Europe in the first half of the nineteenth century, but would later seem very ripe indeed.Many of the women were from noble or bureaucratic families and had studied abroad, where they had formed and participated in women’s study circles.Calling for social justice and political change, these women took advantage of the revolutionary mood sparked by Alexander II’s reforms to serfdom, the judiciary and education.While wealthier women had access to limited education, especially after women’s higher education courses were introduced in the late 1870s, peasant women (who constituted the majority of the Empire’s female population in the 19th century) were mostly illiterate.Despite class differences, society was staunchly patriarchal and women of all backgrounds were not allowed to vote or hold public office until 1917.World War I brought even greater freedom – and hardship – as thousands of women were mobilised to fill roles left vacant by men at the front and to support the war effort.In the 1860s and 70s, a number of women joined the populist revolutionary movement that was gathering momentum in Russia.