Essay On Scientific Progress In After Independence

Essay On Scientific Progress In After Independence-18
Although some have proposed that these principles should be written down and formalized, the principles and traditions of science are, for the most part, conveyed to successive generations of scientists through example, discussion, and informal education.As was pointed out in an early Academy report on responsible conduct of research in the health sciences, “a variety of informal and formal practices and procedures currently exist in the academic research environment to assure and maintain the high quality of research conduct” (IOM, 1989a, p. Physicist Richard Feynman invoked the informal approach to communicating the basic principles of science in his 1974 commencement address at the California Institute of Technology (Feynman, 1985): [There is an] idea that we all hope you have learned in studying science in school—we never explicitly say what this is, but just hope that you catch on by all the examples of scientific investigation.It's a kind of scientific integrity, a principle of scientific thought that corresponds to a kind of utter honesty—a kind of leaning over backwards.

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A fruitful hypothesis may develop into a theory after substantial observational or experimental support has accumulated.

When a hypothesis has survived repeated opportunities for disproof and when competing hypotheses have been eliminated as a result of failure to produce the predicted consequences, that hypothesis may become the accepted theory explaining the original facts. They allow us to anticipate yet unknown phenomena and thus to focus research on more narrowly defined areas.

These principles are at work in the fundamental elements of the scientific method, such as formulating a hypothesis, designing an experiment to test the hypothesis, and collecting and interpreting data.

In addition, more particular principles characteristic of specific scientific disciplines influence the methods of observation; the acquisition, storage, management, and sharing of data; the communication of scientific knowledge and information; and the training of younger scientists.

But as theories survive more tests, they are regarded with higher levels of confidence.

In science, then, facts are determined by observation or measurement of natural or experimental phenomena.Examples of events changing scientific thought are legion.Truly scientific understanding cannot be attained or even pursued effectively when explanations not derived from or tested by the scientific method are accepted.This knowledge is based on explanatory principles whose verifiable consequences can be tested by independent observers. Scientists operate within a system designed for continuous testing, where corrections and new findings are announced in refereed scientific publications.Science encompasses a large body of evidence collected by repeated observations and experiments. The task of systematizing and extending the understanding of the universe is advanced by eliminating disproved ideas and by formulating new tests of others until one emerges as the most probable explanation for any given observed phenomenon. An idea that has not yet been sufficiently tested is called a hypothesis.If you make a theory, for example, and advertise it, or put it out, then you must also put down all the facts that disagree with it, as well as those that agree with it.In summary, the idea is to try to give the information to help others to judge the value of your contribution, not just the information that leads to judgment in one particular direction or another. 311-312) Many scholars have noted the implicit nature and informal character of the processes that often guide scientific research practices and inference.In evaluating practices that guide research endeavors, it is important to consider the individual character of scientific fields.Research fields that yield highly replicable results, such as ordinary organic chemical structures, are quite different from fields such as cellular immunology, which are in a much earlier stage of development and accumulate much erroneous or uninterpretable material before the pieces fit together coherently.A hypothesis is a proposed explanation of those facts.A theory is a hypothesis that has gained wide acceptance because it has survived rigorous investigation of its predictions. science accommodates, indeed welcomes, new discoveries: its theories change and its activities broaden as new facts come to light or new potentials are recognized.


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