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While hate crime behavior has a long history, it has only been in the last couple of decades that research to understand this type of crime has been conducted.
Although not all jurisdictions, academics, or professionals agree about who should be protected by hate crime laws, the majority of such laws describe the offender’s motivation based on prejudice against the victim’s, race, color, nationality, religion, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability status.
203-229View the publication online Alkiviadou, N., 'Regulating hatred: Of devils and demons? View the publication online ardson-Self, L., 'Woman-Hating: On Misogyny, Sexism, and Hate Speech' (2018), Hypatia 33(2), pp.
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