History And Generation Of Computer Assignment

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invented the stepped reckoner and his famous stepped drum mechanism around 1672.He attempted to create a machine that could be used not only for addition and subtraction but would utilise a moveable carriage to enable long multiplication and division.Around 1820, Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar created what would over the rest of the century become the first successful, mass-produced mechanical calculator, the Thomas Arithmometer.

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In 1804, Joseph-Marie Jacquard developed a loom in which the pattern being woven was controlled by a paper tape constructed from punched cards.

The paper tape could be changed without changing the mechanical design of the loom.

This was a landmark achievement in programmability.

His machine was an improvement over similar weaving looms.

AD 1000); the equatorium and universal latitude-independent astrolabe by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (c.

AD 1015); the astronomical analog computers of other medieval Muslim astronomers and engineers; and the astronomical clock tower of Su Song (1094) during the Song dynasty.The castle clock, a hydropowered mechanical astronomical clock invented by Ismail al-Jazari in 1206, was the first programmable analog computer.Ramon Llull invented the Lullian Circle: a notional machine for calculating answers to philosophical questions (in this case, to do with Christianity) via logical combinatorics.Later record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi (clay spheres, cones, etc.) which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, and markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money.Several analog computers were constructed in ancient and medieval times to perform astronomical calculations. 1050–771 BC) from ancient China, and the astrolabe and Antikythera mechanism from the Hellenistic world (c. Other early mechanical devices used to perform one or another type of calculations include the planisphere and other mechanical computing devices invented by Abu Rayhan al-Biruni (c.He followed this up with the modern slide rule in 1632, essentially a combination of two Gunter rules, held together with the hands.Slide rules were used by generations of engineers and other mathematically involved professional workers, until the invention of the pocket calculator.Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers.The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick. What we now call the Roman abacus was used in Babylonia as early as c. Since then, many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented.Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, like the abacus, were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result.Later, computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage.

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