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Aristotle asserted that you could further reduce these elements into two pairs of qualities, hot and cold and wet and dry.The combination of each of these qualities resulted in the elements.
The Greeks were applying mathematics to theorize about the nature of their world.
They held a range of beliefs about nature and the world but they were, in many cases, working to ground those beliefs in an empirical exploration of what they could reason from evidence.
As the shadow moves across the moon it is clearly round. Given that opportunities for observations of a lunar eclipse do not come along that often, there was also evidence of the roundness of the earth in the experiences of sailors.
When a ship appears on the horizon it's the top of the ship that is visible first.
According to Aristotle the lighter substances moved away from the center of the universe and the heaver elements settled into the center.
While these elements attempted to sort themselves out, to achieve this order, most of experience involved mixed entities.
The diagram at the right illustrates a translation of his work.
The large circle is the sun, the medium circle is the Earth and the smallest circle is the moon.
These qualities can be replaced by their opposites, which in this system become how change happens on Earth.
For example, when heated, water seemingly turns steam which looks like air.