Literature Review On Substance Abuse

We reviewed the literature regarding universal HIV prevention interventions in both intravenous drug users and non-intravenous drug users to identify interventions most effective at reducing HIV risk, as well as to identify any pertinent limitations or gaps in the literature.

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Additionally, Hispanic injection drug users have a significantly higher estimated rate of HIV infection as compared to white non-Hispanic injection drug users, 4.9 per 100,000 people in the Hispanic population versus 0.9 per 100,000, respectively [4].

In addition, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of substance-use related HIV infection, with 53% of substance use-related HIV cases comprised of MSM [1].

In addition drug testing procedures and associated legislation regarding drug-impaired driving in the different EU Member States were described and the issues raised by such testing reviewed.

The outcomes of the study included a scientific literature review and annotated bibliography on the relation between drug use, impaired driving and traffic accidents.

Furthermore, researchers have not yet determined how best to target and deliver interventions to sociodemographic groups at the greatest risk for substance use-associated HIV. individual interventions, may significantly impact the effectiveness of interventions aimed at HIV prevention for those who need them most.

Finally, there has not been a widely disseminated universal intervention technique for preventing HIV in substance users.Substance users in particular are at substantially increased risk of contracting HIV.The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reports that approximately 81% of individuals living with HIV have used illicit substances at least once in their lifetime, with approximately 17% of HIV-positive individuals having used injectable drugs during their lifetime [1].Sharing of needles and unprotected sexual contact are two high-risk behaviors that increase HIV transmission among substance users.Most individuals who contract HIV do so through unprotected sex, putting substance users at increased risk due to disinhibition as a result of intoxication, as well as through trading sexual favors for drugs [2].MSM who are also in the IDU population further have been reported to have increased violence, which should be considered in HIV prevention efforts [8].Therefore, the IDU and NIDU populations should be separated to clearly define the best intervention methods for these differing groups at risk of contracting HIV.The health consequences of drug use are a priority area for the EMCDDA and impaired driving and road traffic accidents linked to drugs constitute an important topic on which comprehensive information is lacking.The literature review addressed inter alia the relationship between different patterns of drug consumption, impaired driving and traffic accidents.Future studies should include HIV testing and measurement of HIV seroconversion to fully elucidate intervention effects.In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses continues to remain high, with certain sociodemographic groups experiencing increased rates of HIV compared to the general population.

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