Obstacles To Problem Solving

Obstacles To Problem Solving-71
For a real life example of overcoming fuctional fixedness, see: Overcoming functional fixedness: Apollo 13 Questions: What do you think of Köhler's claim that his apes had demonstrated insight?What proportion of Maier's participants spontaneously found the solution before getting any kind of hint? The problem space for the eight puzzle consists of the initial arrangement of tiles, the desired arrangement of tiles (normally 1, 2, 3….8), and all the possible arrangements that can be arrived at in between.But that phrase should not be considered a term of disparagement.

For a real life example of overcoming fuctional fixedness, see: Overcoming functional fixedness: Apollo 13 Questions: What do you think of Köhler's claim that his apes had demonstrated insight?What proportion of Maier's participants spontaneously found the solution before getting any kind of hint? The problem space for the eight puzzle consists of the initial arrangement of tiles, the desired arrangement of tiles (normally 1, 2, 3….8), and all the possible arrangements that can be arrived at in between.But that phrase should not be considered a term of disparagement.

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One of these was called the Einstellung effect, now more commonly referred to as .

This occurs when a problem solver becomes fixated on applying a strategy that has previously worked, but is less helpful for the current problem.

A description of these studies, with photographs, can be found here.

The Gestalt psychologists described several aspects of thought that acted as barriers to successful problem solving.

In particular, in the process of thinking about a problem individuals sometimes "restructured" their representation of the problem, leading to a flash of insight that enabled them to reach a solution.

In (1915) Wolfgang Köhler described a series of studies with apes in which the animals appeared to demonstrate insight in problem solving situations.These practice problems could be solved by filling Jug B, then tipping water from Jug B into Jug A until it is filled, and then twice using the remainging contents of Jug A to fill Jug C. However, although this formula could be applied to the subsequent "critical" problems, these also had simpler solutions, such as A - C.People who had experienced the practice problems mostly tried to apply the more complex solution to these later problems, unlike people who had not experienced the earlier problems (who mostly found the simpler solutions).The extroverts are more likely to focus on what's happening around them.It's as if extroverts are seeing "what is" while their introverted peers are asking "what if.” ― “Love begets wisdom, thus it is, as often misconceived, more than vain layers of tenderness; it is inherently rational and comprehensive of the problem within the problem: for instance, envy is one of the most excused sins in the media of political correctness.Behaviourist researchers argued that problem solving was a process; that is, organisms faced with a problem applied behaviour that had been successful on a previous occasion.Successful behaviour was itself believed to have been arrived at through a process of trial-and-error.“There are not more than five musical notes, yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard.There are not more than five primary colours, yet in combinationthey produce more hues than can ever been seen.In their history, Band-Aids have probably allowed millions of people to keep working or playing tennis or cooking or walking when they would otherwise have had to stop.The Band-Aid solution is actually the best kind of solution because it involves solving a problem with the minimum amount of effort and time and cost.” ― “Extroverts are more likely to take a quick-and-dirty approach to problem-solving, trading accuracy for speed, making increasing numbers of mistakes as they go, and abandoning ship altogether when the problem seems too difficult or frustrating.

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