3.7 Paradigmatic starting points Design entails epistemological issues concerning ideas on the nature of knowledge (defines criteria), and ontological issues, concerning the nature of reality.4.1 Theory-based problem analysis and solution design Descriptive literature focuses on that what is, rather than on that what can be to improve performance.One should avoid doing a BPS project on a perception problem (inaccurate perceptions) and target problem (unattainable norms).
Advantage freedom for change agents Not each detail of the new business system has to be designed by the designers self-organization and self- control Disadvantage freedom for change agents Designers have less control over realization of their systems than do designers of material systems.
Can be counteracted by monitoring the development and taking action.
Characteristics business problems: Result of choices of influential stakeholders Open-ended, not one unique solution Not intellectual question, dependent on value judgment of various stakeholders Solved within (often tight) constraints of time and effort Selected from a ‘problem mess’ and ‘solved’ through a ‘change muddle’ An important part of problem definition is to make explicit the perceptions, performance indicators and norms used by the various stakeholders in defining their own version of the problem.
The problem definition should lead to a definition of a real problem.
Political and cultural interventions are also needed.