What Should A Research Paper Introduction Have

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For manipulative experiments, the hypothesis should include the independent variable (what you manipulate), the dependent variable(s) (what you measure), the organism or system, the direction of your results, and comparison to be made.reared in warm water will have a greater sexual mating response.(The dependent variable “sexual response” has not been defined enough to be able to make this hypothesis testable or falsifiable.

In addition, no comparison has been specified— greater sexual mating response as compared to what?

Rationale· Rationale is missing; how is this study related to what we know about D.

magna survivorship and reproduction as related to water temperature, and how will this experiment contribute to our knowledge of the system?

First sentence gives impression that Global Warming is topic for this paper.

Changes associated with global warming are not well known and therefore little can be concluded about use of as indicator species.· Information about heart rate is unnecessary because heart rate in not being tested in this experiment.If your pilot study influences your biological rationale or hypothesis, you need to describe it in your Introduction.If your pilot study simply informs the logistics or techniques, but does not influence your rationale, then the description of your pilot study belongs in the Materials and Methods section.· Think about the ecosystem in which this organism lives and the context. magna be in a body of water with elevated temperatures? are small zooplankton found in freshwater inland lakes and are thought to switch their mode of reproduction from asexual to sexual in response to extreme temperatures (Mitchell 1999).Hypothesis· Not falsifiable; variables need to be better defined (state temperatures or range tested rather than “warm” or “cold”) and predict direction and magnitude of change in number of males after 10 days.· It is unclear what comparison will be made or what the control is· What dependent variable will be measured to determine “switch” in mode of reproduction (what criteria are definitive for switch? Lakes containing have an average summer surface temperature of 20°C (Harper 1995) but may increase by more than 15% when expose to warm water effluent from power plants, paper mills, and chemical industry (Baker et al. (background info) Could an increase in lake temperature caused by industrial thermal pollution affect the survivorship and reproduction of may be queued to reproduce sexually resulting in the production of male offspring and females carrying haploid eggs in sacs called ephippia (definition) (Mitchell 1999).(e.g., “Do guppies spend different amounts of time in water : describes the purpose of your experiment distilling what is known and what is not known that defines the knowledge gap that you are addressing.The “BR” provides the logic for your hypothesis and experimental approach, describing the biological mechanism and assumptions that explain why your hypothesis should be true.The biological rationale is based on your interpretation of the scientific literature, your personal observations, and the underlying assumptions you are making about how you think the system works.If you have written your biological rationale, your reader should see your hypothesis in your introduction section and say to themselves, “Of course, this hypothesis seems very logical based on the rationale presented.”***Special note on avoiding social justifications: You should not overemphasize the relevance of your experiment and the possible connections to large-scale processes.It often includes a summary of findings from previous, relevant studies.Remember to cite references, be concise, and only include relevant information given your audience and your experimental design.


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