And between December 1946 and August 1947, 23 medical doctors were tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The defence mounted by the doctors was founded on three points: first was the classic Nuremberg defence of only obeying orders in a time of national emergency.
Despite the impact of the Nazi doctors’ trial and the promulgation of the new code of ethics, neither the United States nor its European allies, adhered to the code until a series of scandals suggested the need for a closer look at how medicine was conducting itself.
The existence of the code was not enough to halt the Tuskegee syphilis study in which 400 African-American men with syphilis were simply observed though treatment was available.
Poles were forced to move from the Kresy territories in the East (taken over by the USSR) and were resettled mostly to the newly acquired Western Territories, from which Germans were expelled.
We combine historical censuses with newly collected survey data to show that, while there were no pre-WWII differences in education, Poles with a family history of forced migration are significantly more educated today.
Or to prevent the Guatemala syphilis experiments, which involved about 1,500 children, prisoners, soldiers, sex workers and psychiatric patients.
Neither did it impact the deliberate exposure of military personnel and civilians to radioactive fallout from atomic testing.
As the extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Poland and the concentration camps in Germany were liberated, the scale of human destruction wrought by Nazi ideology both confounded and shocked.
But, in their efforts to reap the benefits of Nazi scientific research, intelligence officers rapidly discovered the devastation of human medical experimentation.